The reason Turkey has not yet ratified the agreement is that it is classified as a developed country, with the obligation to provide financial resources to help developing countries achieve the objectives of the climate convention. According to the Brown to Green report, an analysis of the G20 climate record, Turkey, like most countries, is far from on the path needed to reach the climate agreement. The country still derives 38% of its energy from electricity generated from coal. At the current UN summit in New York, Russia signed the law ratifying the country`s participation in the Paris Agreement. Among these examples, Turkey is now the only G20 country that has not yet ratified the climate agreement. Since then, Turkey has argued that it is a developing country and that it has gained special circumstances that allow it to opt out of funding. But it still cannot access climate money, a condition that President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has said must change if Turkey wants to ratify the deal. International agreements are initially signed to indicate their intention to do so, but they only become binding through ratification. It may be an act of Parliament or some other formal adoption.
Processes vary from country to country. Former U.S. President Barack Obama used controversial executive powers to ratify the 2016 Paris Agreement. Climate scientist and founder of Germany`s New Climate Institute, Niklas Huhne, said Turkey was “reseming” the list of countries that do not yet need to ratify the agreement. Turkey and three major oil-exporting nations are among the seven countries that have yet to ratify the 2015 Paris climate agreement. Angola joined Kyrgyzstan and Lebanon and ratified in 2020, meaning the 190-nation agreement was formally approved by 197 nations. According to the sources, France and Germany have taken the lead in pushing Turkey to ratify the agreement. A financial package jointly developed by these two European countries, with the support of the United Republic and the World Bank, has been proposed to the Turkish government in recent months.
The Turkish government`s assessment of the package is still being conducted by an inter-institutional team led by the ministries of finance, environment, energy and foreign affairs in Ankara. On November 4, 2019, the United States informed the custodian of its withdrawal from the agreement, which will take effect exactly one year after that date.  One of the key issues of this forum is Turkey`s place in global climate policy and policy. In this article, I will try to answer the question of whether Turkey`s “special circumstances” remain valid under the new climate regime after the Paris Agreement comes into force. The answer to that question is yes and no. Yes, because, from a legal point of view, Turkey`s “special circumstances” have been recognized by a decision of the Conference of the Parties (COP), and Turkey will continue to use them in the years to come. However, the real impact of this particular status is politically uncertain, if not zero, given the new provisions of the Paris Agreement. A closer look at the new type of climate change cooperation enshrined in the agreement will help explain why Turkey`s “special” circumstances may not be politically applicable. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan had made it clear that Turkey would not ratify the agreement if its demands were not met. He recalled that German Chancellor Angela Merkel and former French President Francois Hollande made promises to him during the negotiations on the Paris agreement.